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Week In Review

Week in Review: January 17, 2021

Historic Court Cases

On January 22, 1973, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that unduly restrictive state regulation of abortion was unconstitutional. Here are some other significant Supreme Court cases.
Roe v. Wade
This 7-2 decision ruled that a set of Texas statutes criminalizing abortion violated a woman’s constitutional right of privacy.
Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey
This 1992 decision narrowed the scope of the Roe decision, with the result that later legal challenges to Roe would focus on the “undue burden” qualifier of the original decision.
Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission
Critics asserted that this 2010 ruling would open the door to massive, unchecked spending in U.S. elections.
United States v. Windsor
The court ruled in 2013 that the federal Defense of Marriage Act, which defined marriage as a union between one man and one woman, violated the Fifth Amendment’s “basic due process and equal protection principles.”
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
With this unanimous 1954 ruling, the court overturned the “separate but equal” doctrine established by Plessy v. Ferguson and laid the foundation for the civil rights movement.

Lindbergh Urges Accommodation with Hitler

On January 23, 1941, American aviator Charles Lindbergh testified before Congress in opposition to Franklin D. Roosevelt’s Lend-Lease Act. Lindbergh, who had toured Germany as an honored guest of the Third Reich, praised Hitler’s rearmament program and saw World War II as a fraternal squabble between European powers. War with Germany, he had argued, would “reduce the strength and destroy the treasures of the White [sic] race” while putting the United States in opposition to the only power in Europe capable of stopping “the Asiatic hordes.” Lindbergh’s white supremacy-based isolationism found significant support among the American populace, and he was one of the leading voices in the America First movement in the months before Pearl Harbor.
America First
article / Lifestyles & Social Issues
Everett Collection/age fotostock
Plotting Against America
article / Technology
Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
The German-American Bund
article / Politics, Law & Government
New York World-Telegram and the Sun Newspaper Photograph Collection, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. (neg. no. LC-USZ62-117148)

Guess the City By Its Nickname

You probably know what metropolis is called the City of Light or the Big Apple, but can you guess these cities by their lesser-known nicknames?
The Pink City
It is said that this cosmopolis was painted its namesake hue in 1876 in anticipation of a visit from the prince of Wales.
The End of the World
This port town got its moniker from its location, which is at the southern extremity of South America.
Ice City
This metropolis is one of the coldest in China and is known for its annual ice festival.
Silicon Savannah
This African city’s newest nickname plays on the tech industry and on its country’s ecological features.
Phoenix City
This European cosmopolis earned its name for its resemblance to the mythological bird that rises from the ashes.

The Fastest Animals on Earth

In the animal kingdom, speed can mean the difference between life and death. Predators use their quickness to overtake and overpower their prey, while animals with few other defenses rely on speed to avoid becoming dinner. Discover the fastest of the fast.
The Sprinter: 0 to 60 MPH in Under 3 Seconds
article / Science
? Photos.com/Thinkstock
The Long-Distance Champion: Up to 35 MPH
article / Science
Alan And Elaine Wilson
The Fastest Overall: 185 MPH
article / Science
? PixyNL/Fotolia

Famous Presidential Speeches

The U.S. presidential inauguration is an opportunity for the incoming president to declare a vision for the next four years. What are some other famous presidential addresses?
“A house divided against itself cannot stand”
Abraham Lincoln made this statement about the status of slavery in the United States during his debates with Stephen Douglas.
“Ich bin ein Berliner”
No, John F. Kennedy did not declare that he was a jelly doughnut.
“The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here...”
Lincoln could not have been more wrong about his brief address at Gettysburg.
“Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall!”
Ronald Reagan delivered this statement in the shadow of the Brandenburg Gate, and the Berlin Wall was gone two-and-a-half years later.
“Yes, we can.”
With these three words, Barack Obama found a slogan that would propel him to the White House.

Inauguration Day

Following one of the most contentious presidential elections in U.S. history, Joe Biden and Kamala Harris will be sworn in as president and vice president, respectively. The inauguration will take place amid unprecedented security measures after Trump supporters stormed the Capitol on January 6. And while many challenges lie ahead—from a polarized country to the COVID-19 pandemic—we celebrate the new administration.
46
article / Politics, Law & Government
David Lienemann—Official White House Photo
The First Woman and First African American VP
article / Politics, Law & Government
Courtesy of Kamala Harris for Senate
The Departing President
article / Politics, Law & Government
Andrew Harnik/AP Images

The “Iron Lady” of India

On January 19, 1966, Indira Gandhi became prime minister of India, the first female to assume that office. Learn more about her and the people who served in the post during the first decades of India’s independence.
Jawaharlal Nehru
Gandhi’s father, Nehru, was the first prime minister of independent India (1947–64). He was also one of the principal leaders of India’s independence movement in the 1930s and ’40s.
Lal Bahadur Shastri
A member of Mahatma Gandhi’s noncooperation movement against the British government in India, Shastri succeeded Nehru as prime minister in 1964. At Shastri’s sudden death in 1966, Indira Gandhi was named leader of the Congress Party—and thus also became prime minister.
Indira Gandhi
Gandhi served three consecutive terms (1966–77) and a fourth term from 1980 until she was assassinated by her own bodyguards on October 31, 1984.
Rajiv Gandhi
Following Gandhi’s assassination in 1984, her son Rajiv succeeded her as prime minister and served until 1989.

Three Artists to Celebrate Today!

Sophie Taeuber-Arp was a Swiss French Dada artist, textile designer, and modern dancer whose work bridged the gap between fine and applied arts. Cindy Sherman is an American photographer known for her “disguised” self-portraits that comment on sexual stereotypes and call attention to the way women are represented. And Paul Cézanne was a French painter whose experiments with form influenced many 20th-century artists and art movements, namely Cubism. What do these disparate artists have in common? In addition to impacting the course of art history, they were all born on January 19. Happy birthday!
Sophie Taeuber-Arp
article / Visual Arts
Art Collection/Alamy
Cindy Sherman
article / Visual Arts
Lars Niki/Getty Images
Paul Cézanne
article / Visual Arts
Helen Birch Bartlett Memorial Collection, 1926.252/Photography ? The Art Institute of Chicago

It’s Winnie-the-Pooh Day!

To celebrate, we’re testing your knowledge of the “Bear of Very Little Brain” and other children’s books.
What was the inspiration for Pooh Bear?
Author A.A. Milne didn’t have to look far to create such beloved characters as Pooh, Eeyore, and Christopher Robin.
What was the title of Dr. Seuss’s first book?
Learn that answer and more in our quiz.
A doorway to hell?
Alas, not all classic children’s books are beloved. This hugely popular series is frequently challenged by those hoping to have it banned.
“Let the wild rumpus start”
This 1963 book is considered groundbreaking for its honest treatment of children’s emotions, especially anger.
Who wrote Charlotte’s Web?
In our crossword puzzle, you’ll need to name this author and others.

Martin Luther King, Jr., Day

In the United States, Martin Luther King, Jr., Day is observed annually on the third Monday in January. The day commemorates the life and work of King, who was a Baptist minister and prominent leader in the American civil rights movement. People are encouraged to use the day to “reflect on the principles of racial equality and nonviolent social change espoused by Dr. King.” The prompt feels especially urgent this year after the widespread Black Lives Matter protests last summer.
The Legacy of King
article / Politics, Law & Government
AP Images
Timeline of the American Civil Rights Movement
List / World History
Underwood Archives/UIG/REX/Shutterstock.com
Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial
article / Geography & Travel
? Maisna/Dreamstime.com
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