The rich history of Brazil’s visual arts is echoed by the country’s museums, which hold notable collections of Brazilian and international art. Here are just six paintings in those collections.
Earlier versions of the descriptions of these paintings first appeared in 1001 Paintings You Must See Before You Die, edited by Stephen Farthing (2018). Writers names appear in parentheses.
Allegory of the Four Continents—America (c. 1820)
The artist depicting this idealized scene of a native man unassaulted in the landscape was José Teófilo de Jesus, a principal figure in the Bahian school of painting. De Jesus worked under religious orders to produce delicately colored murals on church ceilings in the Bahian capital. He was also commissioned to paint a portrait of Pedro I, the first emperor of Brazil. Painted after approximately 400 years of oppression, resistance, and social disintegration, Allegory of the Four Continents—America is an unusually peaceful representation of the indigenous peoples of Brazil. Those peoples of Bahia in eastern and southern Brazil were originally the Ge and then the Tupinambá, who encountered the first Europeans in 1500. The objectives of the colonial era were control, revenue, and religious conversion under royal policy and papal interests. As a landscape, Allegory of the Four Continents—America is uncommon in Bahian painting. De Jesus’s engagement with this genre reveals his intellectual roots in a European painting tradition. His use of paint suggests movement, harmony, and a wealth of lush, natural details. The muted but luminous coloring and unusual gray greens create an idyllic, pristine sense of abundance, though it is unclear if the box at the indigenous person’s feet is an offering or a gift. Closely linked to the interests of the church and the government of the later half of the 19th century, de Jesus represents a historical scene from Bahia’s past as if it were merely a tame, tropical illusion. The painting is in the collection of the Museu de Arte da Bahia in Salvador. (Sara White Wilson)
The Flowered Dress (1891)
édouard Vuillard lived with his mother for 60 years as she ran her corsetière in a succession of apartments around Paris. After her husband died in 1878, Vuillard’s mother set up a dressmaking business. It was in such private observations that the stay-at-home child sharpened his eye for detail through the colors, materials, patterns, and shapes of the dresses. Many of this French painter’s most touching works, including The Flowered Dress, record with exquisite intimacy his mother and sister sewing and sorting fabrics with other women in the workroom. Influenced by Paul Gauguin and Japanese woodcuts, Vuillard shared a studio with Pierre Bonnard, and together they developed the Intimist style of painting. Then with other artists they formed the Post-Impressionist Nabis (Hebrew for “prophet”). This group sought to go beyond Gauguin’s pure color approach to render beautiful, symbolic harmonies. Certainly Vuillard captured these harmonies gloriously in his small-scale, “snug” scenes, heightened by his flat patterns taken from the textiles themselves. The part reflection (in this case of the emphatically patterned dress) in the mantelpiece mirror was a technique Vuillard used recurringly. What is extraordinary is how he could project this intimate vision onto large murals (he painted murals and designs in many public buildings) without losing his sure touch and detailed observation. This painting is in the collection of the Museu de Arte de S?o Paulo. (James Harrison)
Five Girls from Guaratingueta (1930)
Emiliano Di Cavalcanti was born in Rio de Janeiro and participated in the organization of the 1922 “Week of Modern Art.” He displayed 12 of his own paintings in the influential show, which introduced Brazilian Modernism to the world. In 1923 Di Cavalcanti traveled to Paris, where he moved in the circles of Pablo Picasso, Georges Braque, and Henri Matisse. Five Girls from Guaratingueta is representative of Di Cavalcanti’s vibrant, cosmopolitan sensibility. In this Cubist canvas, which is part of the collection of the Museu de Arte de S?o Paulo, the women’s stylish accessories focus the seemingly haphazard arrangement of bold lines on their lush curves. The figures’ lips, full breasts, and heavy-lidded, flirtatious eyes, contribute to the canvas’s overall sense of seduction and languid eroticism. The girls are sexual and sophisticated and the soft, fleshy, pink setting surrounding them indicates that the world around them is also one steeped in sensuality. (Ana Finel Honigman and Sara White Wilson)
Portrait of Emperor Pedro II (1855)
Despite his European ancestry, Pedro II was born in Rio de Janeiro, making him Brazil’s only native-born monarch. He came to the throne at the age of 14, and during his 49-year rule he laid the foundations for modern Brazil. When he was painted by Luiz de Miranda Pereira Visconde de Menezes, at age 31, Pedro II was already a well-loved liberal, a progressive emperor who encouraged industrialization, the abolition of slavery, and the modernization of Brazil. Portrait of Emperor Pedro II is a classic Baroque portrait honoring a great and popular ruler. Little is known about Menezes; however, the complex expression on the emperor’s face reveals an exceptional talent. Menezes captures discernment, sense of duty, and playful curiosity in the emperor’s handsome face. He also employs the remnants of classical European portrait style to illustrate the vast earthiness of tropical Brazil. Characterized by a highly decorative appearance, the painting possesses a remarkably harmonious balance of gilding and earth tones. Pedro II is seen as representing his own mixed heritage as well as embodying his hopes for Brazil’s developing hybridized and industrialized society. With modernization, the monarchy became an increasing obstacle to Brazil’s economic powers and to the integration of large-scale immigration from Europe. Although still popular among the people, Pedro II was removed from power and exiled in 1889. He died in 1891 in Paris, France; his remains, along with those of his wife, were reburied in Brazil in 1922. This painting is in the collection of the Museu Histórico Nacional in Rio de Janeiro. (Ana Finel Honigman and Sara White Wilson)
Still Life of Papaya, Watermelon and Cashew (1860)
Agostinho José da Mota was born and died in Rio de Janiero, but he studied in Europe before returning to Brazil to teach art. His Still Life of Papaya, Watermelon and Cashew is a dramatic play between bright and somber hues, reminiscent of the detailed textures and realistic light effects of still-life paintings from the Dutch Golden Age. When he painted this elegant image, which is in the collection of the Museu Nacional de Belas Artes in Rio de Janeiro, Mota was already one of Brazil’s most notable landscape artists. His work in Rome with the Italian Carlo Magini, a well-regarded still-life painter, and a commission from the empress of Brazil to paint a still life, encouraged Mota to master the genre. While landscapes represent the main body of his work, Mota’s still-life paintings highlight the most compelling qualities of his technique, demonstrate his skill for composition and atmosphere, and reflect his nuanced observation of nature. Created during the later Baroque period of Brazilian art, the combination of European and local influences in Still Life of Papaya, Watermelon and Cashew is characteristic of its time and of Mota’s sensual aesthetic. Mota creates an overall sense of pictorial harmony by highlighting the deep oranges, lively pinks, and soft yellows of the fruit against a muted, earthy background. Similarly, he juxtaposes the fruits’ forms, so that the individual geometry of the precisely cut papaya and roughly split watermelon complement one another. Mota influenced Brazil’s painting tradition during a period of upheaval as Brazil became an industrialized society. (Ana Finel Honigman and Sara White Wilson)
Candido Portinari, the son of Italian immigrants, was born on a coffee plantation near S?o Paulo and studied art in Rio de Janeiro and Paris. Like many of his peers, he was influenced by French Modernism and painted scenes from Brazilian daily life in a style blending Cubism and politically motivated Brazilian Neorealism. In 1922 Portinari participated in S?o Paulo’s “Week of Modern Art,” an influential art festival sponsored by wealthy local coffee barons. That year, he also joined the Brazilian Communist Party—of which he remained an active member throughout his life. Coffee depicts the arduous life of agricultural workers on coffee plantations. Painted with dramatic movement and great empathy, the work depicts a swarm of men and women lugging bulky bags of coffee beans while a uniformed foreman directs them with his aggressively pointed arm. The geometric repetition of lines of workers and rows of trees heightens the sense of oppressive toil, yet Portinari’s use of warm tones neutralizes the composition’s rigid angles and humanizes the workers. He depicts their bodies with limbs exaggerated to express exhaustion and animalistic bulk intended to represent the bestial lifestyle they are forced to live. During his life, Portinari enjoyed international success, and he was friends with influential circles of poets, writers, journalists, and diplomats. In 1948, however, he was forced to flee Brazil when persecution of the communists began. He returned to Brazil in 1951 but died in 1962 from lead poisoning caused by his use of lead-based paint. Coffee is in the collection of the Museu Nacional de Belas Artes in Rio de Janeiro. (Ana Finel Honigman and Sara White Wilson)